Ankylosis of Temporomandibular joint occurs in the patients because of the several reasons. Some of the causes of ankylosis in temporomandibular joint are trauma, accidents or rheumatoid arthritis. In the patients who suffer from ankylosis have chronic pain and difficulty in opening the mouth in the proper way and distance. Facial asymmetry is commonly seen in the patients who suffer from ankylosis. When the dentist checks the patients then the diagnosis of the case becomes much easier with the evidently visible facial asymmetry from the front. Therefore, the diagnosis of the patients becomes faster and easy for the dentists and patients too.
There are two types of ankylosis which includes intra-articular and extra-articular types which can be easily distinguished by the dentist himself. The intra-articular ankylosis is also known as the true ankylosis and the extra-articular ankylosis is also known as false ankylosis. In case of the true ankylosis, there is normal loss of the bone structure which can be appreciated well in the x-rays. False ankylosis or extra articular ankylosis is caused by the fracture of the zygomatic fracture, irradiation or even infections. In this way, both the types of the ankylosis can be differentiated well and therefore the treatments of every type of ankylosis varies with both types of ankylosis.
The management of the temporomandibular joint ankylosis can be handled with the help of the medical and surgical treatment. The medical treatment includes regular prescribing of the antibiotics as well as analgesics so that the patients can get rid of pain associated in case of opening the jaws. The restriction while opening the jaws are first monitored by the dentists and then further treatments are taken by the patients to ensure proper healing of the condition within an estimated period of time. The main focus of the dentists is to treat the jaw opening so that the patients can open the jaws in the proper way and ensure that there is proper chewing and swallowing of the foods and proper speaking abilities. Over the time, several types of treatments have been introduced since decades. Gap anthroplasty is one of the most of commonly treatments which are done in case of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. In case of gap arthroplasty, the excision of ankylosis is done in such a way that the ankylosed part can be sectioned from the portion of the jaw to make the movements of the jaw much better and in a normal mode than before. Replacements like autogenous, alloplastic as well as allogenic are used in the arthroplasty procedures for better approach and therefore leading to improved results in the patients. Many of the arthroplasty cases are done without the replacement options based on the patients case and the requirements in the respective cases. Total condylectomy is very useful when done along with joint replacements along with the options as mentioned above. Condylectomy is recommended to be done in case of intra articular ankylosis. Coronoidectomy is done to release temporalis muscle from the coronoid process of the mandible. Therefore, these are the several ways to treat the ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint successfully.